John Montagu, Fourth Earl
In 1760 the 4th
Earl made some alterations and is said to have added two or three
rooms, but probably the work was chiefly of the nature of readjustment
rather than actual addition.
John Montagu, 4th
Earl (known by the modern nickname "the Insatiable Earl" after
a biography by N A M Bodger) lived an active life.
He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, explored France, Italy, Greece
and Turkey and not only studied the Turkish language but had his portrait
painted in Turkish costume (above).
Later he became First Lord of the Admiralty and was patron to
Captain James Cook who explored New Zealand, Australia and Polynesia.
He was also known as The Turk after his travels to Turkey and later "Jemmy
Twitcher" after a character in Beggars Opera.
names such as Hinchingbrooke Island and Brampton Island off Queensland,
and Montague Island in the South Sandwich Islands are evidence of Cook's
thanks to the 4th Earl. In 1774 the Earl entertained a Polynesian named
Omai at Hinchingbrooke, where Omai made a barbecue from heated stones
in the grounds and cooked mutton for the family.
The Earl's wife was
declared insane in 1767 and he took as a mistress 17-year old Martha Ray
who lived with him at Hinchingbrooke as husband and wife for seventeen
years, while they had five children. The Earl was a leading light in reviving
early music, particularly the work of Handel for which he arranged a hugely
successful centenary celebration.
Martha Ray was a talented singer and Hinchingbrooke became famous for
its musical gatherings in the middle of the 18th century. The Earl added
the Gothic windows to the library and the Montagu room at this time.
|One writer said
at this time:
"Few houses were more pleasant and instructive
than his Lordship's. It was filled with rank, beauty and talent and
everyone was at his ease."
1779 Martha was murdered by the jealous and unbalanced Captain Hackman
who shot her in the foyer of the Opera House at Covent Garden - a violent
crime for which he was tried and executed.
Montagu fourth Earl of Sandwich died in 1792 and is probably best
remembered now for the bread and beef convenience food which took his
name. It is more likely that he ate this as part of his working day at
the admiralty than, as some have suggested, because he spent so long gambling.
The original sandwich was in fact a piece of salt beef between two slices
of toasted bread.
This was a name given to the popular interest
in knowledge. In the 1700s many new discoveries were made - of
knowledge and of places.
Art - The
Royal Academy was founded in 1768
Literature and Language - Dr Samuel
Johnson published his Great Dictionary in 1755; Alexander
Pope, Jonathan Swift, William Blake.
Music - Purcell, Handel
Philosophy - The idea of the noble
savage - Jean Jacques Rousseau; David Hume
Science - Linnaeus - classification
of flora and fauna; followers included Joseph Banks and
Daniel Solander both on James Cook's ship, Endeavour.
Time - John Harrison in 1759
created a watch accurate enough to calculate longitude. Replicas
of Harrison's machine were used on Cook's voyages.
was the Fourth Earl typical of the people of The Enlightenment?